PUBLISHED RESEARCH

To date, there have been 5 papers published on Okur-Chung Neurodevelopmental Syndrome.

Below are links to pdf's of the papers.

Are CSNK2A1 gene mutations associated with retinal dystrophy

Abstract
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) refer to a group of often severe pediatric conditions associated with impaired cognitive, sensory, and/or motor functions stemming from atypical development of the central nervous system. Although the recent development of genetic diagnostic tools, such as exome sequencing, has highlighted the prevalence of genetic anomalies in NDDs, the broad and variable and, at times, evolving clinical manifestations can render their prompt diagnosis difficult. Recently, de novo mutations in the CSNK2A1 gene, encoding for the alpha subunit of the casein kinase 2, have been found to cause a novel NDD with multisystemic involvement, termed Okur-Chung disease (MIM 617062). Clinical features include intellectual disability, microcephaly, hypotonia, and ataxia, with high inter-subject variability [1–3]. Here we report, to our knowledge for the first time, a pediatric patient carrier of a “de novo” mutation in the CSNK2A1 gene initially presenting with isolated retinal dystrophy.

Refining the Clinical Phenotype of Okur-Chung Neurodevelopmental Syndrome

Abstract
We describe an 8-year-old Japanese boy with a de novo recurrent missense mutation in CSNK2A1, c.593A>G, that is causative of Okur–Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome. He exhibited distinctive facial features, severe growth retardation with relative macrocephaly, and friendly, hyperactive behavior. His dysmorphic features might suggest a congenital histone modification defect syndrome, such as Kleefstra, Coffin–Siris, or Rubinstein–Taybi syndromes, which are indicative of functional interactions between the casein kinase II, alpha 1 gene and histone modification factors.

De novo Mutations in CSNK2A1 are Associated with Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities and Dysmorphic Features

Abstract
Whole exome sequencing (WES) can be used to efficiently identify de novo genetic variants associated with genetically heterogeneous conditions including intellectual disabilities. We have performed WES for 4102 (1847 female; 2255 male) intellectual disability/developmental delay cases and we report five patients with a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, hypotonia, speech problems, microcephaly, pachygyria and dysmorphic features in whom we have identified de novo missense and canonical splice site mutations in CSNK2A1, the gene encoding CK2α, the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2, a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase composed of two regulatory (β) and two catalytic (α and/or α') subunits. Somatic mutations in CSNK2A1 have been implicated in various cancers; however, this is the first study to describe a human condition associated with germline mutations in any of the CK2 subunits.

Okur-Chung Neurodevelopmental Syndrome Eight Additional Cases with Implications on Phenotype and Genotype Expansion

Abstract
Okur-Chung syndrome is a neurodevelopmental condition attributed to germline CSNK2A1 pathogenic missense variants. We present 8 unreported subjects with the above syndrome, who have recognizable dysmorphism, varying degrees of developmental delay and multisystem involvement. Together with 6 previously reported cases, we present a case series of 7 female and 7 male subjects, highlighting the recognizable facial features of the syndrome (microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthic fold, ptosis, arched eyebrows, low set ears, ear fold abnormality, broad nasal bridge and round face) as well as frequently occurring clinical features including neurodevelopmental delay (93%), gastrointestinal (57%), musculoskeletal (57%) and immunological (43%) abnormalities. The variants reported in this study are evolutionary conserved and absent in the normal population. We observed that the CSNK2A1 gene is relatively intolerant to missense genetic changes, and most variants are within the protein kinase domain. All except 1 variant reported in this cohort are spatially located on the binding pocket of the holoenzyme. We further provide key recommendations on the management of Okur-Chung syndrome. To conclude, this is the second case series on Okur-Chung syndrome, and an in-depth review of the phenotypic features and genomic findings of the condition with suggestions on clinical management.

Extending the Phenotype Associated with the CSNK2A1-Related Okur-Chung Syndrome-A Clinical Study of 11 Individuals

Abstract
Variants in the Protein Kinase CK2 alpha subunit, encoding the CSNK2A1 gene, have previously been reported in children with an intellectual disability and dysmorphic facial features syndrome: now termed the Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome. More recently, through trio-based exome sequencing undertaken by the Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study (DDD study), a further 11 children with de novo CSNK2A1 variants have been identified. We have undertaken detailed phenotyping of these patients. Consistent with previously reported patients, patients in this series had apparent intellectual disability, swallowing difficulties, and hypotonia. While there are some shared facial characteristics, the gestalt is neither consistent nor readily recognized. Congenital heart abnormalities were identified in nearly 30% of the patients, representing a newly recognized CSNK2A1 clinical association. Based upon the clinical findings from this study and the previously reported patients, we suggest an initial approach to the management of patients with this recently described intellectual disability syndrome.